Basic Television--Principles and Servicing (1975)--Article Index and Intro

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PREFACE [this page; see below TOC]


1-1 Television Broadcasting.

1-2 Television Broadcast Channels.

1-3 Color Television.

1-4 Cable Television (CATV). 1-5 Closed-circuit Television (CCTV). 1-6 Picture Phone. 1-7 Facsimile. 1-8 Satellites for Worldwide Television. 1-9 CRT Numerical Displays.

1-10 Video Recording. 1-11 Development of Television Broadcasting.

Summary, Self-Examination, and Essay Questions.


2-1 Picture Elements.

2-2 Horizontal and Vertical Scanning.

2-3 Motion Pictures.

2-4 Frame and Field Frequencies.

2-5 Horizontal and Vertical Scanning Frequencies. 2-6 Horizontal and Vertical Synchronization. 2-7 Horizontal and Vertical Blanking. 2-8 The 3.58-MHz Color Signal. 2-9 Picture Qualities. 2-10 The 6-MHz Television Broadcast Channel. 2-11 Standards of Transmission.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


3-1 Camera-tube Requirements.

3-2 Image Orthicon.

3-3 Vidicon.

3-4 Plimbicon.

3-5 Silicon Target Plate.

3-6 Solid-state Image Sensor.

3-7 Spectraflex Color Camera Tube.

3-8 Television Cameras.

3-9 Definitions of Light Units.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


4-1 The Sawtooth Waveform for Linear Scanning.

4-2 Standard Scanning Pattern.

4-3 A Sample Frame of Scanning. 4-4 Flicker.

4-5 Raster Distortions.

4-6 The Synchronizing Pulses.

4-7 Scanning, Synchronizing, and Blanking Frequencies.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


5-1 Construction of the Composite Video Signal.

5-2 Horizontal Blanking Time.

5-3 Vertical Blanking Time.

5-4 Picture Information and Video Signal Amplitudes.

5-5 Oscilloscope Waveforms of Video Signal.

5-6 Picture Information and Video Signal Frequencies.

5-7 Maximum Number of Picture Elements.

5-8 Test Patterns.

5-9 DC Component of the Video Signal.

5-10 Gamma and Contrast in the Picture.

5-11 Color Information in the Video Signal.

5-12 Vertical Interval Test Signals (VITS).

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


6-1 Negative Transmission.

6-2 Vestigial-sideband Transmission

6-3 Television Broadcast Channels.

6-4 The Standard Channel.

6-5 Line-of-sight Transmission.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


7-1 Types of Television Receivers.

7-2 Receiver Circuits.

7-3 Signal Frequencies.

7-4 Intercarrier Sound.

7-5 Dividing the Receiver in to Sections.

7-6 Receiver controls.

7-7 Receiver Tubes.

7-8 Solid state Devices.

7-9 Special Components.

7-10 Printed-wiring Boards.

7-11 Localizing Receiver Troubles to One Section.

7-12 Multiple troubles.

7-13 Safety Features.

Summary. Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


8-1 Red, Green, and Blue Video Signals.

8-2 Color Addition

8-3 Definitions of Color Television Terms.

8-4 Encoding the 3.58 MHz C Signal at the Transmitter.

8-5 Decoding the 3.58 MHz C Signal at the Receiver.

8-6 The Y Signal for Luminance.

8-7 Types of Color Video Signals.

8-8 The Color Sync Burst.

8-9 Hue Phase Angles.

8-10 The Colorplexed Composite Video Signal. 8-11 De-saturated Colors with White. 8-12 Color Resolution and Bandwidth. 8-13 Col or Subcarrier Frequency. 8-14 Color Television Systems.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


9-1 Requirements for the Color Picture Tube. 9-2 Normal-Service Switch. 9-3 Monochrome Circuits in a Color Receiver. 9-4 Circuits for Color. 9-5 Manual Color Controls. 9-6 Functions of the Automatic Color Circuits. 9-7 R - V. B Y Receivers. 9-8 X and Z Demodulators. 9-9 R, G, B Receivers. 9-10 How the Picture Tube Mixes Colors. 9-11 Localizing Color Troubles.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


10-1 Types of Picture Tubes. 10-2 Deflection, Focusing, and Centering. 10-3 Screen Phosphors. 10-4 The Electron Beam. 10-5 Electrostatic Focusing. 10-6 Magnetic Deflection. 10-7 Color Picture Tubes. 10-8 Picture Tubes with In-line Beams. 10-9 Grid-Cathode Voltage on the Picture Tube. 10-10 Picture Tube Precautions. 10-11 Picture Tube Troubles. Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


11-1 Color Purity. 11-2 Color Convergence. 11-3 Convergence Correction Waveshapes. 11-4 Screen-grid Adjustments. 11-5 Degaussing. 11-6 Pincushion Correction. 11-7 Overall Setup Adjustments. Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


12-1 Basic Functions of a Power Supply. 12-2 The B+ Supply Line. 12-3 Types of Rectifier Circuits. 12-4 Half-wave Rectifiers. 12-5 Low-voltage Supply with Half-wave Rectifier. 12-6 Full-wave Center-tap Rectifier. 12-7 Full-wave Bridge Rectifier. 12-8 Voltage Doublers. 12-9 Voltage Triplers and Quadruplers. 12-10 Heater Circuits. 12-11 Filter Circuits. 12-12 Voltage Regulators. 12-13 Low voltage Supply with Series Regulator Circuit. 12-14 Troubles in the Low-voltage Supply. 12-15 Hum in the B + Voltage. 12-16 Flyback High-voltage Supply. 12-17 Fuses and Circuit Breakers, Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


13-1 Requirements of the Video Amplifier.

13-2 Polarity of the Video Signal.

13-3 Amplifying the Video Signal.

13-4 Manual Contrast Control.

13-5 Video Frequencies.

13-6 Frequency Distortion.

13-7 Phase Distortion.

13-8 High-frequency Response of the Video Amplifier.

13-9 Low-frequency Response of the Video Amplifier.

13-10 Video Amplifier Circuits.

13-11 The Video Detector Stage.

13-12 Luminance Video Amplifier in Color Receivers.

13-13 Functions of the Composite Video Signal.

13-14 The 4.5-MHz Sound Trap.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


14-1 Changes in Brightness. 14-2 Definitions of Terms for the DC Component. 14-3 How a Coupling Capacitor Blocks the Average DC Voltage. 14-4 DC Coupling and AC Coupling. 14-5 Average Value of the Video Signal. 14-6 DC Insertion. 14-7 Video Amplifier DC coupled to Picture Tube.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


15-1 Requirements of the AGC Circuit. 15-2 Airplane Flutter. 15-3 AGC Bias for Tubes. 15-4 AGC Bias for Transistors. 15-5 Keying or Gating Pulses for the AGC Rectifier. 15-6 AGC Circuits. 15-7 Twin Pentode for AGC and Sync Separator.15-8 AGC Circuit in IC Chip. 15-9 Transistorized AGC Gate and Amplifier. 15-10 DC Voltages in the AGC Circuit. 15-11 AGC Adjustments. 15-12 AGC Troubles.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


16-1 Vertical Synchronization of the Picture. 16-2 Horizontal Synchronization of the Picture. 16-3 Separating the Sync from the Video Signal. 16-4 Integrating the Vertical Sync. 16-5 Noise in the Sync. 16-6 Horizontal AFC. 16-7 Sync Separator Circuits. 16-8 Phasing Between Horizontal Blanking and Flyback. 16-9 Sync and Blanking Bars on the Screen. 16-10 Sync Troubles.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


17-1 Signals for the Color Picture.

17-2 The Video Preamplifier Stage.

17-3 The Y-Channel Video Amplifier.

17-4 Chroma Bandpass Amplifiers.

17-5 The Burst Amplifier Stage.

17-6 Color Oscillator and Synchronization.

17-7 AFPC Alignment. 17-8 Chroma Demodulators.

17-9 Matrixing the Y Video and Color Video Signals.

17-10 Video Amplifiers for Color.

17-11 The Blanker Stage.

17-12 Troubles in the Color Circuits.

Summary, Self-Examination, and Essay Questions.


18-1 Color Killer and Automatic Chroma Control (ACC).

18-2 Color Killer Circuit.

18-3 Color Killer Adjustment.

18-4 ACC Circuit.

18-5 Peak Chroma Control (PCC).

18-6 Automatic Tint Control (ATC).

18-7 Automatic Brightness Limiter (ABL).

18-8 One-Button Tuning.

Summary, Self-Examination, and Essay Questions.


19-1 Raster Circuits. 19-2 Troubles in Height and Width. 19-3 No Brightness. 19-4 Picture Troubles. 19-5 Bars in the Picture. 19-6 Sound in the Picture. 19-7 Ghosts in the Picture. 19-8 Interference. 19-9 Hum Troubles.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


20-1 The Sawtooth Deflection Waveform. 20-2 Producing Sawtooth Voltage. 20-3 Blocking Oscillator and Discharge Tube. 20-4 Analysis of Blocking Oscillator Operation. 20-5 Blocking Oscillator Sawtooth Generator. 20-6 Transistorized Blocking Oscillator Circuit. 20-7 Frequency and Size Controls. 20-8 Synchronizing the Blocking Oscillator. 20-9 Types of Multivibrator Circuits. 20-10 Plate-coupled Multivibrator. 20-11 Cathode-coupled Multivibrator. 20-12 Multivibrator Sawtooth Generator. 20-13 Synchronizing the Multivibrator. 20-14 Frequency dividers. 20-15 Transistors in Multivibrator Circuits. 20-16 Sawtooth, Trapezoid, and Rectangular Voltages and Currents. 20-17 Incorrect Oscillator Frequency.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


21-1 Triode Vertical Output Stage. 21-2 Transistorized Vertical Output Stage. 21-3 Vertical Output Transformers. 21-4 Vertical Linearity. 21-5 Internal Vertical Blanking. 21-6 Multivibrator for Combined Vertical Oscillator and Amplifier. 21-7 Transistorized Blocking Oscillator and Vertical Amplifier. 21-8 Miller Feedback Integrator Circuit. 21-9 Transistor Pair in Vertical Output Circuit. 21-10 Vertical Deflection Troubles.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


22-1 Functions of the Horizontal Output Circuit. 22-2 The Horizontal Amplifier. 22-3 Damping in the Horizontal Output. 22-4 Horizontal Scanning and Damping. 22-5 Boosted B+ Voltage. 22-6 Flyback High Voltage. 22-7 Horizontal Deflection Controls. 22-8 Deflection Yokes. 22-9 Horizontal Output Transformers. 22-10 Analysis of Horizontal Output Circuit. 22-11 Complete Horizontal Deflection Circuit. 22-12 Protective Bias on Horizontal Output Tube. 22-13 Transistorized Horizontal Deflection. 22-14 SCR Horizontal Output Circuit. 22-15 High-voltage Limit Control. 22-16 Troubles in the Horizontal Deflection Circuits.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


23-1 Functions of the Picture IF Section. 23-2 Tuned Amplifiers. 23-3 Single-tuned Circuits. 23-4 Double-tuned Circuits. 23-5 Neutralization of Transistor IF Amplifiers. 23-6 The Picture IF Response Curve. 23-7 IF Wave-traps to Reject Interfering Frequencies. 23-8 Picture IF Amplifier Circuits. 23-9 IC Unit for the Picture IF Section. 23-10 Alignment of the Picture IF Amplifier. 23-11 Troubles in the Picture IF Amplifier.

Summary. Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


24-1 Tuner Operation. 24-2 Functions of the RF Amplifier. 24-3 RF Amplifier Circuits. 24-4 The Mixer Stage. 24-5 The Local Oscillator. 24-6 Automatic Fine Tuning (AFT). 24-7 Types of RF Tuners. 24-8 VHF Tuner Circuits. 24-9 UHF Tuner Circuits. 24-10 Cable Television Channels. 24-11 Varactors for Electronic Tuning. 24-12 RF Alignment. 24-13 Remote Tuning. 24-14 Tuner Troubles.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


25-1 Resonant Length of an Antenna. 25-2 Definitions of Antenna Terms. 25-3 How Multipath Antenna Signals Produce Ghosts. 25-4 Straight Dipole. 25-5 Folded Dipole. 25-6 Broad-band Di poles. 25-7 Long-wire Antennas. 25-8 Parasitic Arrays. 25-9 Multi band Antennas. 25-10 Stacked Antenna Arrays. 25-11 Transmission Lines. 25-12 Characteristic Impedance. 25-13 Transmission-line Sections as Resonant Circuits. 25-14 Impedance Matching. 25-15 Antenna Installation. 25-16 Multiple Installations. 25-17 Troubles in the Antenna System.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


26-1 Head-end Equipment. 26-2 Distribution of the Signal. 26-3 Types of Distribution Losses. 26-4 Calculation of Total Losses. 26-5 System with Multitaps. 26-6 System with Single Taps at Wall Outlets. 26-7 Decibel (dB) Units. 26-8 Decibel Conversion Charts.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


27-1 Frequency Changes in an FM Signal. 27-2 Audio Modulation in an FM Signal. 27-3 Definitions of FM Terms. 27-4 Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis. 27-5 Advantages and Disadvantages of FM. 27-6 Reactance Tube. 27-7 Receiver Requirements for the FM Sound Signal. 27-8 Slope Detection of an FM Signal. 27-9 Discriminator Operation. 27-10 Center-tuned Discriminator. 27-11 The Limiter. 27-12 Ratio Detector. 27-13 Quadrature Detector. 27-14 Sound IF Alignment. 27-15 The Audio Amplifier Section. 27-16 Complete Circuits for the Associated Sound Signal. 27-17 Intercarrier Buzz. 27-18 Multiplexed Stereo Sound.

Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions, and Problems.


28-1 Troubleshooting Techniques. 28-2 Test Instruments. 28-3 DC Voltage Measurements. 28-4 Oscilloscope Measurements. 28-5 Alignment Curves. 28-6 Signal Injection. 28-7 Color-bar Generators. 28-8 Schematic Diagram of Monochrome Receiver with Tubes. 28-9 Schematic Diagram of Solid-state Color Receiver. 28-10 Transistor Troubles. Summary, Self-Examination, Essay Questions. and Problems.


A Television Channel Frequencies

B FCC Frequency Allocations

C Television Systems Around the World

D RC Time Constant






This guide presents a comprehensive course in black-and-white and color television for electronic technicians and far television servicing. The practical explanations of television principles and receiver circuits are planned for the student just starting in television. The guide is designed as a text for television courses that follow a course in radio or electronics fundamentals.

This edition has been completely revised to emphasize color television, solid state circuits, and cable television. Principles of color television are integrated throughout the entire guide since modern television is mainly in color. The first SECTION, Applications of Television, describes the many uses besides broadcasting.

Television receiver circuits are shown with vacuum tubes, transistors, and integrated circuits. However, the emphasis is on solid-state circuits in modern receivers.

SECTION 7, Television Receivers, describes the main types of semiconductor devices.

On the practical side, the guide explains troubleshooting principles that are helpful in repairing receivers. All the examples of circuits are from typical television receivers. Many photographs are used to show actual components. Common troubles are illustrated by photographs from the screen of the picture tube, including color photographs in color plates I to XV. In addition, oscilloscope photographs show actual waveshapes.

Each SECTION on receiver circuits ends with the main troubleshooting problems associated with that section. Furthermore, SECTION 19, Troubles in the Raster and Picture, describes common troubles for all the sections in the complete receiver.

Troubleshooting techniques with details on the use of the oscilloscope, meters, and signal generators are explained in SECTION 28, Receiver Servicing. This SECTION has a foldout page with complete circuit diagrams of a monochrome receiver with vacuum tubes and a solid-state color receiver, including oscilloscope waveforms and a pictorial diagram of the printed-wiring board.

Organization of contents. This fourth edition, like the first three, presents the basic material first, with continuity from topic to topic in explaining the television system.

First is an introductory SECTION on the applications of television. Then SECTIONs 2 to 6 describe the details of a television picture, how camera tubes convert the light image into an electrical signal, the scanning procedure, how the composite video signal is formed, and how the signal is transmitted.

After this analysis of the television system, the general requirements of television receivers are described, followed by a detailed description of picture tubes.

SECTION 7 explains the basic circuits in television receivers, mainly for monochrome.

Then SECTION 8 describes the principles of color television. After this, SECTION 9 explains color receivers, with emphasis on the added circuits compared with black and-white receivers, especially for the color picture tube. SECTION 10 describes picture tubes for monochrome and color. SECTION 11 explains the special requirements for color picture tubes, particularly the purity and convergence adjustments.

The circuits for each receiver section are presented in detail in separate SECTIONs. The sequence starts with power supplies, followed by the signal circuits, including video, AGC, and sync circuits. Then the fundamental receiver circuits for color are described, with a separate SECTION on automatic color circuits, including one-button tuning.

At this point, the SECTION on raster and picture troubles explains how the deflection circuits in the receiver produce the scanning raster. Both the vertical and horizontal scanning circuits are considered here, in terms of the raster on the screen of the picture tube. Then separate SECTIONs explain the details of deflection oscillators, vertical deflection circuits, and horizontal deflection circuits, including the flyback high-voltage supply.

After the deflection circuits for the raster are discussed, there are SECTIONs on the IF and rf circuits, including the FM sound signal. Antennas and transmission lines for the television receiver are explained, with a separate SECTION on cable distribution systems.

The last SECTION on receiver servicing describes troubleshooting techniques and test equipment, with details on color-bar generators. At the end are two complete receiver circuits to show how all the sections fit together.

New SECTIONs and reorganization. The importance of color television can be seen from the fact that four SECTIONs are devoted to it in this edition. Furthermore, the principles of color television are explained toward the beginning of the guide instead of leaving this topic for last. After the principles are explained, the block diagram of a color television receiver is analyzed in SECTION 9. This is a new SECTION with many important features of color receivers that do not depend on knowledge of color circuits.

The details of color circuits are in SECTION 17, and an explanation of automatic color circuits is in SECTION 18, which is also a new SECTION.

The new SECTION 19, Troubles in the Raster and Picture, has two purposes. It introduces general troubles for all the receiver sections without the need for details of the deflection circuits. Also, this SECTION shows how the vertical and horizontal deflection circuits work together to form the raster.

The requirements of an installation with multiple receivers are explained in the new SECTION 26, Cable Distribution Systems. This SECTION indicates the importance of cable TV in modern television. Last but not least, is the new SECTION 1, Applications of Television, which describes television broadcasting, color television systems, and additional ways of using television principles, including video tape recording.

Teaching aids. In this edition, each SECTION has a short introduction that describes the main features, followed by a list of the topics explained in the SECTION. As a result, the reader can visualize what material is to be learned in each step. The specific order usually helps in understanding the subject. Each SECTION also has a summary at the end.

Because self-testing materials have proved successful, the SECTIONs conclude with:

1. Self-examination questions, including multiple-choice, true-false, fill-in, and matching questions. These are based mainly on the summary. Answers are given at the back of the guide.

2. Thorough and specific essay questions for review, including functions of components and troubleshooting problems. These questions generally require drawing schematic diagrams, referring to the diagrams in the text, reviewing definitions, and applying the text material.

3. A separate group of numerical problems for practice in quantitative work. Many of these problems review the fundamentals of electronic circuits applied to television receivers. Examples include RC time constant, decibels, induced voltages, and resonance. Answers to selected problems are given at the back of the guide.

The self-testing exercises are helpful in organizing class work and reviewing the most important features of each SECTION. In addition, the guide can be used for self-study, since students can check their own progress. A bibliography at the end of the guide lists helpful references for more information on television, especially color television, and further study on solid-state circuits.

Credits. The schematic diagrams and photographs have been made available by many companies in the television field, as noted in each illustration. This courtesy is gratefully acknowledged. I want to thank my colleague Gerald McGinty for his in valuable assistance in reviewing the entire manuscript.

For the final credit, it is a pleasure to thank my wife Ruth for her excellent work in typing the manuscript.

- Bernard Grob



Bierman, H., and M. Bierman. Color Television Principles and Servicing, Hayden Book Company Inc., Rochelle Park, N.J., 1973.

Fink, D.G.: Television Engineering Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1957.

International Radio Consultive Committee: Text of Plenary Assembly, Volume V. Part 2, International Telecommunications Union, Geneva, Switzerland, 1970. Kiver, M.S.: Color Television Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1964.

Levy, A., and M. Frankel: Television Servicing, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1959.

Markus, J.: Television and Radio Repairing, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1961.

Middleton, R.G.: Transistor Color-TV Servicing Guide, Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc., Indianapolis, 1971.

National Television System Committee: Color Television Standards, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1961.

Reed, C.R.G.: Principles of Color Television Systems, Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., London, 1969.

Simons, K.: Technical Handbook for CA N Systems, Jerrold Electronics Corporation, Philadelphia, 1968.

Tinnell, R. W.: Television Symptom Diagnosis, Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc., Indianapolis, 1973.

Towers, T.D.: Transistor Television Receivers, Hayden Book Company Inc., Rochelle Park, N.J., 1963.

Zbar, P., and P. Orne: Basic Television Text-Lab Manual, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1971.


Cutler, P.: Solid-State Device Theory, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1972.

GE Transistor Manual, General Electric Company, Syracuse, N.Y. Hibberd, R.G.: Integrated Circuits, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1969.

Kiver, M.S.: Transistors, 3d ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 1962.

RCA Transistor, Thyristor and Diode Manual, RCA Electronic Components, Harrison, N.J. Schure, A.: Basic Transistors, Hayden Book Company Inc., Rochelle Park, N.J..

Semiconductor Cross-Reference Guide, Motorola Semiconductors, Phoenix, Ariz.

Sowa. W.A.: Active Devices for Electronics, Rinehart Press, a division of Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., Corte Madera, Calif., 1971.

Tocci, R.J.: Fundamentals of Electronic De vices, Charles E. Merrill Books, Inc., Columbus, Ohio, 1970. Tomer, R.B.: Semiconductor Handbook, Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc., Indianapolis, 1968.

Audio-Visual Aids

Education Department, Hayden Book Company, Rochelle Park, N.J. McGraw-Hill Films, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. National Audiovisual Center, General Services Administration, Washington, D.C.

Also see:

Air Time--An Intro to Television Broadcasting

Video Handbook (1954)

TV and Radio Tube Troubles (1958)

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Updated: Wednesday, 2023-12-13 17:27 PST